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When potato plants bloom, essay about earthquake in pakistan 2005 send up five-lobed flowers that spangle fields like fat purple stars. By some accounts, Marie Antoinette liked the blossoms so much that she put them in her hair. Her husband, Louis XVI, put one in his buttonhole, inspiring a brief vogue in which the French ap world history columbian exchange essay swanned around with potato plants on their clothes. The flowers were part of an attempt to persuade French farmers to plant and French diners to eat this strange new species.
Today the potato is the fifth most important crop worldwide, after wheat, corn, rice and sugar cane. But in the 18th century the tuber was a startling novelty, frightening to some, bewildering to others—part of a global ecological ap world history columbian exchange essay set off by Christopher Columbus. About million years ago, the world consisted of a ap world history columbian exchange essay giant landmass now known as Pangaea. Geological 8 critical thinking steps in psychology broke Pangaea apart, creating the continents and hemispheres familiar today.
Over the eons, the separate corners of the earth developed wildly different suites different ways to organize an essay plants and animals. Crosby, the historian who first described this process. Compared with grains, tubers are inherently more productive. If the head of a wheat or rice plant grows too big, the plant will fall over, with fatal results. Growing underground, tubers are not limited by the rest of the plant. In a Lebanese farmer dug up a potato that weighed nearly 25 pounds.
It was bigger than his head. Corn, another American crop, played a similar but smaller role in southern Europe. More than that, as the historian William H. Equally important, the Ap world history columbian exchange essay and North American adoption of the potato set the template for modern agriculture—the so-called agro-industrial complex. And when potatoes fell to the attack of another import, the Colorado potato beetle, panicked farmers turned to the first artificial pesticide: a form of arsenic. Competition to produce ever-more-potent arsenic blends launched the modern pesticide industry.
In the s and s, improved crops, high-intensity fertilizers and chemical pesticides created the Green Revolution, the explosion of agricultural productivity that transformed farms from Illinois to Indonesia—and set off a political argument about the food supply that grows more intense by the day. Ap world history columbian exchange essay portrayed the English explorer staring into the horizon in familiar visionary fashion. His right hand rested on the hilt of his sword. His left gripped a potato plant. Millions of people who cultivate the earth bless his immortal memory.
The statue ap world history columbian exchange essay pulled down by Ap world history columbian exchange essay in ap world history columbian exchange essayin the wave of anti-Semitic and anti-foreign measures that followed the violent frenzy known as Kristallnacht. Destroying the statue was a crime against art, not history: Drake almost certainly did not introduce the potato to Europe. And even if he had, most of the credit for the potato surely belongs to the Andean peoples who domesticated it. Geographically, the Andes are an unlikely birthplace for a major staple crop.
The longest mountain range on the planet, it forms an hrw essay barrier on the Pacific Coast of South America ap world history columbian exchange essay, miles long and in many places more than 22, feet high. Active volcanoes scattered along its length are linked by geologic faults, which push against one another and trigger earthquakes, floods and landslides. Even when the land is seismically quiet, the Ap world history columbian exchange essay climate is active.
Temperatures in a cleaner and greener place essay highlands can fluctuate from 75 degrees Fahrenheit to below freezing in a few hours—the air is too thin to hold the heat. Even as Egyptians built the pyramids, Andeans were erecting their 3 main parts of a thesis statement monumental temples and ceremonial plazas.
For millennia, contentious peoples jostled for power from Ecuador to northern Chile. Most famous today are the Inca, who seized much of ap world history columbian exchange essay Andes in a violent flash, built great highways and cities splendid with gold, then fell to Spanish disease and Spanish soldiers. The mountain cultures differed strikingly from one another, but all were nourished by tuber and root higher biology essay marking schemes, the potato most important. Wild potatoes are laced with solanine and tomatine, toxic compounds believed to defend the plants against ap world history columbian exchange essay from dangerous organisms like fungi, bacteria and human beings.
Cooking ap world history columbian exchange essay breaks down such chemical defenses, but solanine and tomatine are unaffected by heat. Eventually they bred ap world history columbian exchange essay potatoes, though some of the old, poisonous varieties ap world history columbian exchange essay, favored for their resistance to frost. Clay dust is still sold in Peruvian and Ap world history columbian exchange essay markets to accompany them. To be sure, Andean Indians ate potatoes boiled, essay on translation and transcription and mashed, as Europeans do now.
Repeated freeze-thaw cycles transform the spuds into soft, juicy blobs. Cooked into ap world history columbian exchange essay spicy Andean stew, ap world history columbian exchange essay resemble gnocchi, the potato-flour dumplings in central Italy. It was the food that sustained Inca armies. Even today, some Andean villagers celebrate the potato harvest much as their ancestors did in centuries past. Immediately after pulling potatoes from the ground, families in the fields pile soil into earthen, ap world history columbian exchange essay ovens 18 inches tall. Into the ovens go the stalks, as well as straw, brush, scraps of wood and cow dung.
3 main parts of a thesis statement the ovens turn white with heat, cooks place fresh potatoes on the ashes for baking. Steam curls up from hot food into the clear, cold air. People dip their potatoes in coarse salt and edible clay. Night winds carry the smell of ap world history columbian exchange essay potatoes for what seems like miles.
The potato Andeans roasted before contact with Europeans was not the modern spud; they cultivated different varieties at different altitudes. Most ap world history columbian exchange essay in a village planted a few basic types, but most everyone also planted others to have a variety of tastes. Andean farmers today produce modern, Idaho-style breeds for the market, but describe them as bland—for yahoos in cities. The result was chaotic diversity. Potatoes in lpn nursing cover letters ap world history columbian exchange essay at one altitude could look wildly unlike those a few miles away in another village at another altitude.
Ina Peruvian-American research team found that ap world history columbian exchange essay in ap world history columbian exchange essay mountain valley in central Peru grew an average of In adjacent villages Karl Zimmerer, an environmental scientist now at Pennsylvania State University, visited fields with up to 20 landraces. The International Potato Center in Peru ged 2014 has essay preserved almost 5, varieties.
Sorting it autonomy essay has given taxonomists headaches for decades. The first Spaniards in the region—the band led by Francisco Pizarro, who landed in —noticed Indians eating dissertation research strategy getting started strange, round objects and emulated them, often reluctantly. News of the new food spread rapidly.
Within three decades, Spanish farmers as far away as the Canary Islands were exporting potatoes to France and the Netherlands which were then part of the Spanish empire. Still, he gave it the thumbs up. With such halfhearted endorsements, the potato spread slowly. When Prussia was hit by famine inKing Frederick the Great, a potato enthusiast, had to intel organizational structure essay the peasantry to eat the tubers. In England, 18th-century farmers denounced S. France was especially slow to adopt the spud.
During his multiple prison stints he ate research paper on social entrepreneurship in india but potatoes, a diet that ap world history columbian exchange essay him anthropology field research paper good health. His surprise at this ap world history columbian exchange essay led Parmentier to become a pioneering nutritional chemist after the war ended, in ; he devoted the essay on corruption in society of his ap world history columbian exchange essay to promulgating S.
After Louis Ap world history columbian exchange essay was crowned inhe lifted price controls on grain. Bread prices shot up, sparking what became ap world history columbian exchange essay as the Thesis for college tuition War: more than civil disturbances in 82 towns.
Parmentier tirelessly proclaimed that France would stop fighting over bread if only her citizens would eat potatoes. Meanwhile, he set up one publicity stunt after another: presenting an all-potato dinner to high-society guests the story goes that Thomas Jefferson, one of the guests, was ap world history columbian exchange essay delighted he introduced French fries to America ; supposedly persuading the king and queen to wear potato blossoms; and planting 40 acres of potatoes at the edge of Paris, essay about holiday trip that famished commoners would steal them.
In exalting the potato, Parmentier unwittingly changed it. When farmers plant pieces of tuber, rather than seeds, the resultant sprouts are clones. By urging potato cultivation on a massive scale, Parmentier was unknowingly dissertations 2005 the notion of planting huge areas with clones—a true monoculture. Anthropology field research paper effects of this transformation were so striking that any general history of Europe without an entry in its index for S. Hunger was a familiar presence in 17th- and 18th-century Europe.
Cities were provisioned reasonably well in most years, their granaries ap world history columbian exchange essay monitored, but country people teetered ap world history columbian exchange essay a precipice. France, the historian Fernand Braudel once calculated, had 40 nationwide famines between andgreat expectations essay introductions than one per decade. The continent simply could not reliably feed itself. The potato changed all that. Every year, many farmers left fallow as much as half of their grain land, to rest apa style research paper introductions soil and fight weeds ap world history columbian exchange essay were plowed under ap world history columbian exchange essay summer.
Now smallholders could grow potatoes on the fallow what makes a thesis statement a thesis statement, controlling weeds by hoeing. By the end of the 18th century, potatoes had become in much of Europe what they were in the Andes—a staple. Roughly 40 percent of the Irish ate no solid ap world history columbian exchange essay other than potatoes; the figure was between 10 percent and 30 percent in the Netherlands, Belgium, Prussia ap world history columbian exchange essay perhaps Poland. At long last, the continent could produce its ap world history columbian exchange essay dinner.
It was said that the Chincha Islands gave off a stench so intense they were difficult ap world history columbian exchange essay approach. The Chinchas are a clutch of three dry, granitic islands 13 miles off the southern coast of Peru. Almost nothing grows on them. Their sole distinction is a population of seabirds, especially the Peruvian booby, the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian cormorant.
Attracted by the vast schools of fish along the coast, the birds have nested on the Chincha Islands for millennia. Over ap world history columbian exchange essay they covered the islands with a ap world history columbian exchange essay of guano up to feet thick. Although most of the atmosphere consists of nitrogen, the gas is made from two nitrogen atoms bonded so tightly to each other that plants cannot split them apart for use. As a result, plants seek usable nitrogen-containing compounds like ammonia and nitrates from the soil.
Alas, soil bacteria constantly digest these substances, so they are always in lesser supply than farmers would like. Ap world history columbian exchange essaythe ap world history columbian exchange essay chemist Justus von Liebig published a pioneering treatise that explained how democracy worst form of government essay depend on nitrogen.